Hypertext Transfer Protocol

The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application protocol for distributed, collaborative, and hypermedia information systems. HTTP is the foundation of data communication for the World Wide Web.
Hypertext is structured text that uses logical links (hyperlinks) between nodes containing text. HTTP is the protocol to exchange or transfer hypertext.
At CERN in 1989,Development of HTTP was initiated by Tim Berners-Lee. Standards development of HTTP was coordinated by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) and the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), culminating in the publication of a series of Requests for Comments (RFCs).

in 1997,The first definition of HTTP/1.1, the version of HTTP in common use, occurred in RFC 2068, although this was made obsolete by RFC 2616 in 1999 and then again by the RFC 7230 family of RFCs in 2014.
in 2015,A later version, the successor HTTP/2, was standardized , and is now supported by major web servers and browsers over TLS using ALPN extension where TLS 1.2 or newer is required

Technical overview of HTTP

HTTP functions as a request–response protocol in the client–server computing model. A web browser, for example, may be the client and an application running on a computer hosting a website may be the server. The client submits an HTTP request message to the server. The server, which provides resources such as HTML files and other content, or performs other functions on behalf of the client, returns a response message to the client. The response contains completion status information about the request and may also contain requested content in its message body.
A web browser is an example of a user agent (UA). Other types of user agent include the indexing software used by search providers, voice browsers, mobile apps, and other software that accesses, consumes, or displays web content.

Hypertext Transfer Protocol Function

What is HTTP session

An HTTP session is a sequence of network request-response transactions. An HTTP client initiates a request by establishing a Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) connection to a particular port on a server. An HTTP server listening on that port waits for a client's request message. Upon receiving the request, the server sends back a status line, such as "HTTP/1.1 200 OK", and a message of its own. The body of this message is typically the requested resource, although an error message or other information may also be returned.

Interface HttpSession

The servlet container uses this interface to create a session between an HTTP client and an HTTP server. The session persists for a specified time period, across more than one connection or page request from the user. A session usually corresponds to one user, who may visit a site many times. The server can maintain a session in many ways such as using cookies or rewriting URLs.

This interface allows servlets to

● View and manipulate information about a session, such as the session identifier, creation time, and last accessed time
● Bind objects to sessions, allowing user information to persist across multiple user connections

When an application stores an object in or removes an object from a session, the session checks whether the object implements HttpSessionBindingListener. If it does, the servlet notifies the object that it has been bound to or unbound from the session.
Notifications are sent after the binding methods complete. For session that are invalidated or expire, notifications are sent after the session has been invalidated or expired.
When container migrates a session between VMs in a distributed container setting, all session attributes implementing the HttpSessionActivationListener interface are notified.
A servlet should be able to handle cases in which the client does not choose to join a session, such as when cookies are intentionally turned off. Until the client joins the session, isNew returns true. If the client chooses not to join the session, getSession will return a different session on each request, and isNew will always return true.

Interface HttpSession Methods

Method NameMethod Description
ObjectgetAttribute(String name)
Returns the object bound with the specified name in this session, or null if no object is bound under the name.
EnumerationgetAttributeNames()
Returns an Enumeration of String objects containing the names of all the objects bound to this session.
longgetCreationTime()
Returns the time when this session was created, measured in milliseconds since midnight January 1, 1970 GMT.
StringgetId()
Returns a string containing the unique identifier assigned to this session.
longgetLastAccessedTime()
Returns the last time the client sent a request associated with this session, as the number of milliseconds since midnight January 1, 1970 GMT, and marked by the time the container received the request.
intgetMaxInactiveInterval()
Returns the maximum time interval, in seconds, that the servlet container will keep this session open between client accesses.
ServletContextgetServletContext()
Returns the ServletContext to which this session belongs.
HttpSessionContextgetSessionContext()
Deprecated. As of Version 2.1, this method is deprecated and has no replacement. It will be removed in a future version of the Java Servlet API.
ObjectgetValue(String name)
Deprecated. As of Version 2.2, this method is replaced by getAttribute(java.lang.String).
String[]getValueNames()
Deprecated. As of Version 2.2, this method is replaced by getAttributeNames()

References By: oracle | wikipedia « Privious Post » share on :        :  

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