Model view controller Architecture

Model–view–controller (MVC) is an architectural pattern commonly used for developing user interfaces that divides an application into three interconnected parts. This is done to separate internal representations of information from the ways information is presented to and accepted from the user. The MVC design pattern decouples these major components allowing for efficient code reuse and parallel development.
The architecture of the portal UI is based on the Model-View-Control (MVC) design pattern. The MVC paradigm allows you to separate the code that handles business logic from the code that controls presentation and event handling. Each page in the portal is made up of a combination of at least one Model and View, and one or more Controls.

Model: classes store the data for a page or page section. A single page might use one or more Model classes, depending on how much of the page data can be shared by other types of pages. The model represents data and the rules that govern access to and updates of this data. In enterprise software, a model often serves as a software approximation of a real-world process.
View:The view renders the contents of a model. It specifies exactly how the model data should be presented. If the model data changes, the view must update its presentation as needed. This can be achieved by using a push model, in which the view registers itself with the model for change notifications, or a pull model, in which the view is responsible for calling the model when it needs to retrieve the most current data.
Control: The controller translates the user's interactions with the view into actions that the model will perform. In a stand-alone GUI client, user interactions could be button clicks or menu selections, whereas in an enterprise web application, they appear as GET and POST HTTP requests.

Model view controller

History of MVC Architecture

The MVC pattern has subsequently evolved, giving rise to variants such as hierarchical model–view–controller (HMVC), model–view–adapter (MVA), model–view–presenter (MVP), model–view–viewmodel (MVVM), and others that adapted MVC to different contexts.
The use of the MVC pattern in web applications exploded in popularity after the introduction of NeXT's WebObjects in 1996, which was originally written in Objective-C and helped enforce MVC principles. Later, the MVC pattern became popular with Java developers when WebObjects was ported to Java.

Use in web applications

Although originally developed for desktop computing, MVC has been widely adopted as an architecture for World Wide Web applications in major programming languages. Several web frameworks have been created that enforce the pattern. These software frameworks vary in their interpretations, mainly in the way that the MVC responsibilities are divided between the client and server.

Goals of MVC


Simultaneous development

Because MVC decouples the various components of an application, developers are able to work in parallel on different components without impacting or blocking one another. The back-end developers can design the structure of the data and how the user interacts with it without requiring the user interface to be completed.

Code reuse

By creating components that are independent of one another, developers are able to reuse components quickly and easily in other applications. The same (or similar) view for one application can be refactored for another application with different data because the view is simply handling how the data is being displayed to the user

Advantages of MVC

● Simultaneous development – Multiple developers can work simultaneously on the model, controller and views.
● High cohesion – MVC enables logical grouping of related actions on a controller together. The views for a specific model are also grouped together.
● Low coupling – The very nature of the MVC framework is such that there is low coupling among models, views or controllers
● Ease of modification – Because of the separation of responsibilities, future development or modification is easier
● Multiple views for a model – Models can have multiple views

Disadvantages of MVC

● Code navigability – The framework navigation can be complex because it introduces new layers of abstraction and requires users to adapt to the decomposition criteria of MVC.
● Multi-artifact consistency – Decomposing a feature into three artifacts causes scattering. Thus, requiring developers to maintain the consistency of multiple representations at once.
● Pronounced learning curve – Knowledge on multiple technologies becomes the norm.
● Developers using MVC need to be skilled in multiple technologies.


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