Synchronized Methods in Java

In Java, Synchronization is the capability to control the access of multiple threads to any shared resource.

In order to make a method synchronized, one simply needs to add the synchronized keyword to its declaration:



public class SynchronizedCounter
{
    private int c = 0;

    public synchronized void increment()
    {
        c++;
    }

    public synchronized void decrement()
    {
        c--;
    }

    public synchronized int value()
    {
        return c;
    }
}
   

If count is an instance of SynchronizedCounter, then making these methods synchronized has two effects:

First, it is not possible for two invocations of synchronized methods on the same object to interleave. When one thread is executing a synchronized method for an object, all other threads that invoke synchronized methods for the same object block (suspend execution) until the first thread is done with the object.

Second, when a synchronized method exits, it automatically establishes a happens-before relationship with any subsequent invocation of a synchronized method for the same object. This guarantees that changes to the state of the object are visible to all threads.

constructors cannot be synchronized — using the synchronized keyword with a constructor is a syntax error. Synchronizing constructors doesn't make sense, because only the thread that creates an object should have access to it while it is being constructed.

Synchronized methods enable a simple strategy for preventing thread interference and memory consistency errors: if an object is visible to more than one thread, all reads or writes to that object's variables are done through synchronized methods. This strategy is effective, but can present problems with liveness.

References : Oracle share on :        :  

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